Protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes

The official opening of the Congress by Prof. Zsolt Radák, dean and Prof. István Berkes vice dean for Science. Catherine E. Karsten Forberg Denmark : New knowledge of fitness and its relations to health and learning outcomes Dr.

Karsten Froberg Members: Dr. Rudolf Mihalik, Dr. Anikó Pósa Main Building, Room protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes Opening presentation: Zoltán Heckel: Muscle damage and recovery following two weeks of eccentric-concentric knee extensor training in young versus old humans Ph.

Student Bartha Kincső: Influence of muscle activation level and stored elastic energy on positive mechanical work Mariann Mravcsik: Co-activation of flexor-extensor muscle pairs during cycling arm movements Gábor Montvai, Péter Kőrösi: The effect of homologous muscle stretching on the regulation of contralateral muscle contraction Terheléses vércukorszint értékek Dobronyi, Julianna Király: The Evaluation of Familiarization for Bicycle Ergometer in Anaerobic Tests Exercise Physiology Chair: Dr.

Dong-Ho Han Members: Dr. Higuchi Mitsuru, Dr. Andor Molnár Main Building, Room 40 Lise Søndergård Thomsen: Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on adaptation to endurance training in well-trained runners Anne Kær Thorsen: Acute effects of aerobic exercise on inhibitory control and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in young adults aged years: preliminary results Szabó E, Szénási N.

Gyöngyi Szabó Földesiné Members: Dr. Gábor Géczi, Dr. Caterina Casey Members: Dr. László Balogh, Dr. József Tihanyi Members: Dr.

Bert Taylor Members: Dr. Higashida Higuchi, Dr. Csaba Nyakas Research Institute of Sport Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary : Life-long exercise and the functional cognitive capacity of the brain Exercise physiology and exercise medicine by nature serve prevention, rehabilitation, and also healthy aging which is becoming a rapidly demanding need.

To increase functional capacity of the brain in aged individuals long-term exercise and sport of moderate intensity merit consideration.

Blood test could predict diabetes years before it strikes

Using animal model, the life-long L-L moderate intensity exercise training was introduced from young adult age and kept regularly up to 24 months of age the human equivalent of that age is around 70 years. At the old age of 24 months cognitive functions like attention and spatial learning were studied. As the background brain functional reserve the cholinergic brain, neurotrophic factors BDNFneurogenesis and the markers of neuronal bioenergy protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes glucose transporter 1, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation were followed.

The results showed that the L-L exercise improved attention and spatial learning, attenuated the decline of hippocampal cholinergic capability and also that of neurogenesis.

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The concentration of brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF increased, and the expression of capillary glucose transporter 1 did the same in the hippocampus. MAPK and Akt phosphorylation markedly enhanced. Thus, the most support of L-L exercise could be obtained in the energetic cellular reserve of neurons of aged rats compared to the sedentary controls.

The concept is supported that continuous exercise preferably throughout the entire lifespan is preventive and supportive on the healthy brain aging condition.

Results: One exercise bout induced a PGC-1α-mediated downregulation of glycogenolytic-glycolytic enzymes with a slowing of muscle glycogenolysis. Conclusion: Exercise downregulates muscle glycogenolysis prior to an increase in mitochondria or change in fiber type. Significance: Rapid downregulation of the glycogenolytic-glycolytic pathway resulting in glycogen sparing is a previously unknown function of exercise and PGC-1α Abstract: Endurance exercise training can induce large increases in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise.

The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in the environment that necessitates vigorous, prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation.

This adaptation, which appears to be induced by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts.

This discovery could lead to a test that would help doctors identify patients at greatest risk and help them potentially avert the disease through interventions including diet and exercise. The research was led by Michael Wheeler, a professor of physiology at U of T's Faculty of Medicine, in collaboration with Hannes Röst, an assistant professor of molecular genetics and computer science at the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, Feihan Dai, a research scientist of physiology and Erica Gunderson, a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Northern California. Mi Lai, a post-doctoral fellow in Wheeler's group performed much of the analyses. The identified metabolic signature can predict with over 85 per cent accuracy if a woman will develop type 2 diabetes T2Das described in a study published in the journal Plos Medicine.

It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. Kazuhiko Higashida1, Dr. Although most of fat in the body is stored in subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue, small amount of fat is also protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes in skeletal muscle as lipid droplet. Endurance exercise training increases lipolytic capacity and fat utilization in skeletal muscles.

This adaptation results from upregulation of proteins involved in lipolysis, such as adipose triglycerol lipase ATGLhormone sensitive lipase HSL and perilipin 5.

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However, the protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes mechanisms of how exercise modulates lipid-associated proteins are unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying endurance exercise-induced lipid-associated proteins in rat skeletal muscles. However, there was no significant increase in these proteins in soleus muscle.

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Phospho-AMPK protein content in epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased immediately after swimming exercise, but not in soleus muscle. These results led us to hypothesize that AMPK is involved in exercise-induced increases in lipid droplet-associated proteins in skeletal muscle. Incubation with 0. Finally, we examined the effect of very high intensity exercise training on lipid droplet-associated proteins in skeletal muscle, since high intensity exercise has a greater effect on AMPK activation than endurance exercise.

Consequently, we found that short only sextremely high intensity exercise training induces expressions of ATGL, HSL and perilipin 5 protein in skeletal muscle to a level comparable to that attained after 3-h endurance training.

These results suggest that activation of AMPK is involved in exercise-induced increases in lipid droplet-associated proteins in skeletal muscle. Mitsuru Higuchi1, 2, Dr. Kumpei Tanisawa3 1Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2Institute of Advanced Active Aging Research, Waseda University, 3Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University : Effects of polygenic risk and aerobic fitness level on metabolic profile in Japanese men Adverse metabolic profiles such as blood lipid abnormality, impaired glucose tolerance, and abdominal obesity increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

Individual variability of the metabolic profiles are determined by a combination of several genetic factors, while high cardiorespiratory fitness Kezelése narzan cukorbetegség is associated with favorable metabolic profiles and reduced risk for various metabolic diseases.

However, it remains unknown whether physically active individuals can reduce their genetic risk for adverse metabolic profiles. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the relationship between genetic factors and the metabolic profiles differ by age. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to determine whether CRF and aging protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes the relationships between polygenic risk and the metabolic profiles.

CRF was assessed by measuring maximal oxygen uptake VO2max in Japanese men age, 20—79 yearsand subjects were divided into low and high CRF groups according to the measured VO2max values. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs previously identified to be associated with blood lipid levels, glucose tolerance and body mass index BMI in the recent genome-wide association studies.

Protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes on these SNPs, genetic risk scores GRSs for each trait were calculated by adding the number of risk alleles, and subjects were divided into the low, middle and high GRS groups.

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Furthermore, several indicators of body fatness such as BMI, total abdominal fat area and visceral fat area were higher in the high GRS group than in the low GRS group only in the middle-aged individuals, whereas these indicators were not different between the GRS groups in the elderly.

These results suggest that the relationship between polygenic risk and the metabolic profiles can be modified by CRF and age. Although this is not intended to be a comparison of the two systems, there are places of intersect that will be explored. In Canada, one must attain an undergraduate degree prior to application for a Teacher Education program. One must have successfully attended a Teacher Education Program prior to receiving a teaching certificate. One is not permitted protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes teach without this certification.

This is not always the case in the United States and this will be further explored during the presentation. Over the past thirty years, we have seen these programs grow and develop into, although narrow in scope, highly specialized and in some cases, prescriptive programs. Kinesiology is an important part of this evolution as it represents a splinter group from the original stand-alone Physical Education program.

Division of Metabolism

Protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes it stands diabetes gyógyszerekkel való kezelés much on its own and has taken much of the spotlight away from Physical Education. This is especially true at the graduate level in Canadian PE Faculties where enrolment numbers continue to decrease.

Bert Taylor University of Western Ontario, Canada : The effects of exercise on the major diseases of aging Until recently the concept of reaching old age referred to relatively few individuals.

As early as years ago the average life span was about 50 years in most industrialized countries, whereas today it approximates 80 years. Medical science and, in particular, exercise scientists utilizing specific training programs for older adults, have made attaining even years of age, no longer a rarity. In fact, in North America and western Europe, the fastest growing population cohort is the group over 85 years of age.

Exercise has been found, generally, to ameliorate the debilitating effects of the aging process.

All of the major diseases of aging appear to be positively and beneficially affected by exercise. In most countries, few physicians have any formal training in exercise prescription.

The formulation of exercise programs for the aging population can be a complex task, due to the nature of the aging process, and should be left to Kinesiologists and Physical Educators.

In North America seniors are being cared for by health care teams, which include these highly trained exercise specialists. Exercise may not be the panacea of all the problems of the aging population but it has cukorbetegség gyomorfájás scientifically shown to be a great beneficial aid for healthy aging and improved quality of life for seniors.

Exercise, importantly, is also a means to alleviate the ever increasing costs of the health care systems.

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István Berkes 1. Louis, USA Dr.